Why Dual Vocational Training (Apprenticeship training, ‘Lehre’)? Dual vocational training (DVT) is internationally recognized as a good practice in tackling youth-unemployment and in integrating vulnerable adolescents into society. “Out of around 50 refugees enrolled in higher vocational schools, only one managed to graduate”, whereas for DVT the number of successful graduates is higher (Albl (lobby. 16): January 13, 2017). DVT offers a practical orientation through learning by doing. There is a high interest from refugees in the practical orientation of DVT. DVT builds upon existing public services and programs (eg. Jugend College and Kompetenz Check). DVT enables refugees to gradually adjust to the realities of working within an Austrian company. DVT allows refugees to burst the ‘social bubble’1 in a way that potentially facilitates a smoother transition into the labor market through a multi-level learning process (personal, social, cultural, and professional).
The recent “Brexit” referendum win as well as the rise of parties campaigning for other “exits”, can in many ways be thought of as the logical outcome of the paradoxes of the neoliberal labour relation policies that the EU has (largely) supported until now. To what extent is the direction of this discontent valid when it comes to labour relations, however? Is the EU to blame for the worsening wage share in Austria or is is simply a scapegoat?